NOTE: The following general overview of shamanism is not
intended to be the last word or the definitive work on this subject. Rather it
is, as its title implies, intended to provide the participant or reader with a
set of guidelines that will familiarize them with the general use of the terms
shamanism, shaman and
shamanic in the trends, study and practice of historic, traditional and
contemporary shamanic experience. The word shaman comes to English
from the Tungus language via Russian. Among the Tungus of Siberia it is both a
noun and a verb. While the Tungus have no word for shamanism, it has come into
usage by anthropologists, historians of religion and others in contemporary
society to designate the experience and the practices of the shaman. Its usage
has grown to include similar experiences and practices in cultures outside of
the original Siberian cultures from which the term shaman originated. Thus
shamanism is not the name of a religion or group of religions. Particular
attention should be paid to the use of qualifying words such a may or
usually. They indicate examples or tendencies and are not, in any
way, intended to represent rigid standards Please send comments to firstname.lastname@example.org (Dean Edwards).
Table of Contents:
- Terms used in this FAQ
- What is Shamanism?
- What is Shamanic
- How does one become a
- The role of crisis and
trauma in the development of a shaman.
- The relationship between
shamanic traditions and culture.
- The role of Shamanic
- The origin of the term
- Roles of the shaman.
- Reasons for this FAQ
- What recommended books are
available on shamanism?
What useful books are available about:
- Siberian, Central Asian and
- Nontraditional contemporary
- Shamanism among Native
Americans in North America?
- Shamanism among Native
Americans in South America?
- African shamanism?
- Shamanism in South and East
- Shamanism and
There is an extensive
literature about shamanism that has been compiled since the late Eighteenth
Century. Like any field of study and religious practice, shamanism has
developed a specialized vocabulary. Please note that some of the words used in
the material that follows are drawn from scholars who have a solid background
in shamanic studies and may have meanings that are specific and less general
than is often the case in popular usage. Consulting a good dictionary should
clear up any points of confusion.
Shamanism is classified by
anthropologists as an archaic magico-religious phenomenon in which the shaman
is the great master of ecstasy. Shamanism itself, was defined by the late
Mircea Eliade as a technique of ecstasy. A shaman may exhibit a particular
magical specialty (such as control over fire, wind or magical flight). When a
specialization is present the most common is as a healer. The distinguishing
characteristic of shamanism is its focus on an ecstatic trance state in which
the soul of the shaman is believed to leave the body and ascend to the sky
(heavens) or descend into the earth (underworld). The shaman makes use of
spirit helpers, with whom he or she communicates, all the while retaining
control over his or her own consciousness. (Examples of possession occur, but
are the exception, rather than the rule.) It is also important to note that
while most shamans in traditional societies are men, either women or men may
and have become shamans.
There are a number of relatively common
practices and experiences in traditional shamanism which are being
investigated by modern researchers. While the older traditional practices are
ignored by some researchers, others have begun to explore these older
techniques. The emergence of the new field of the "anthropology of
consciousness" and the establishment of Transpersonal Psychology as a "Fourth
Force" in psychology have opened up the investigation of research into the
nature and history of consciousness in ways not previously possible. Outside
of academic circles a growing number of people have begun to make serious
inquiries into ancient shamanic techniques for entering into altered states of
Traditional shamans developed techniques for
lucid dreaming and what is today called the out-of-the-body experience (oobe).
These methods for exploring the inner landscape are being investigated by a
wide range of people. Some are academics, some come from traditional societies
and others are modern practitioners of non-traditional shamanism or
neo-shamanism. Along with these techniques, the NDE or near-death-experience
have played a significant role in shamanic practice and initiation for
millenia. There is extensive document- ation of this in ethnographic studies
of traditional shamanism. With this renewed interest in these older traditions
these shamanic methods of working with dreams and being conscious and awake
while dreaming are receiving increased attention.
The ability to consciously move beyond the
physical body is the particular specialty of the traditional shaman. These
journeys of Soul may take the shaman into the nether realms, higher levels of
existence or to parallel physical worlds or other regions of this world.
Shamanic Flight, is in most instances, an experience not of an inner imaginary
landscape, but is reported to be the shamans flight beyond the limitations of
the physical body.
As noted in this article, the Call to
shamanize is often directly related to a near death experience by the
prospective shaman. Among the traditional examples are being struck by
lightning, a fall from a height, a serious life-threatening illness or lucid
dream experiences in which the candidate dies or has some organs consumed and
replaced and is thus reborn. Survival of these initial inner and outer brushes
with death provides the shaman with personal experiences which strengthen his
or her ability to work effectively with others. Having experienced something,
a shaman is more likely to understand what must be done to correct a condition
Post-Shamanic: While shamanism may be readily
identified among many hunting and gathering peoples and in some traditional
herding societies, identifying specific groups of individuals who might be
called shamans is a difficult task in more stratified agricultural and
manufacturing based societies. A society may be said to be Post- Shamanic when
there are the presence of shamanic motifs in its traditional folklore or
spiritual practices indicate a clear pattern of traditions of ascent into the
heavens, descent into the nether- worlds, movement between this world and a
parallel Otherworld, are present in its history. Such a society or tradition
may have become very specialized and recombined aspects of mysticism, prophecy
and shamanism into more specialized or more "fully developed" practices and
may have assigned those to highly specialized functionaries. When such
practices and functionaries are present or have teplaced the traditional
shamans found in historical or traditional shamanism the use of Post-shamanic
More specifically, a society may be said to
be Post-Shamanic when at least 6 of the following 8 conditions have been met:
- Shamanic ecstasy is still present, but light trance techniques are also
used to access the Otherworld.
- Agriculture and some forms of manufacturing/crafts have replaced hunting
and gathering as the primary basis for the economic life of the community.
- The society has developed a highly stratified social structure and very
- Religion and spiritual methodology has become more fully developed and
can no longer be properly referred to as "archaic." This is expecially
important for rituals, ceremonies and ecstatic techniques which had
traditionally been the domain of the shamans.
- Mystical ecstasy and unitive visions have become at least as important
esoteric experiences and doctrines as shamanic ecstasy, ascension and
descent in the religious and spiritual life of the community.
- The shaman is no longer the primary escort for the souls of the dead
into their place in the next world (psychopomp). This role generally either
passes onto the priestcraft or clergy to perform through ritual, is an
object of individual or group prayer, or is beleived to be done by gods of
guardian spirits, angels or demons.
- A professional clergy is present which regulates the religious life of
- Other forms of healing, divining and counseling are present have
replaced shamans as the primary source of such services.
Post-shamanic motifs are found among many
Indo-Eruopean, Asian, African and some native peoples of North America. The
use of Post-Shamanic as a term makes examination of these parallel traditons
and possible survivals of earlier shamanic traditions easier.
From the Greek ekstasis, ecstasy
literally means to be placed outside, or to be placed. This is a state of
exaltation in which a person stands outside of or transcends his or herself.
Ecstasy may range from the seizure of the body by a spirit or the seizure of a
person by the divine, from the magical transformation or flight of
consciousness to psychiatric remedies of distress.
Three types of Ecstasy are specified in the literature on the subject:
- Shamanic Ecstasy
- Prophetic Ecstasy
- Mystical Ecstasy
is provoked by the ascension of the soul of the shaman into the heavens or its
descent into the underworld. These states of ecstatic exaltation are usually
achieved after great and strenuous training and initiation, often under
distressing circumstances. The resulting contact by the shaman with the higher
or lower regions and their inhabitants, and also with nature spirits enables
him or her to accomplish such tasks as accompanying the soul of a deceased
into its proper place in the next world, affect the well-being of the sick and
to convey the story of their inner travels upon their return to the mundane
The utterances of the shaman are in contrast
with those of prophetic and mystical ecstasy. The prophet literally speaks for
God, while the mystic reports an overwhelming divine presence. In mysticism,
the direct knowledge or experience of the divine ultimate reality, is
perceptible in two ways, emotional and intuitive. While these three varieties
of ecstatic experience are useful for the purposes of analysis and discussion,
it is not unusual for more than one form of ecstasy to be present in an
However, it can be argued that, generally
speaking, there are three perceptive levels of ecstasy.
- The physiological response, in which the mind becomes absorbed in and
focused on a dominant idea, the attention is withdrawn and the nervous
system itself is in part cut off from physical sensory input. The body
exhibits reflex inertia, involuntary nervous responses, frenzy.
- Emotional perception of ecstasy refers to overwhelming feelings of awe,
anxiety, joy, sadness, fear, astonishment, passion, etc.
- Intuitive perception communicates a direct experience and understanding
of the transpersonal experience of expanded states of awareness or
physiological response is always present, the emotional response may or may
not be significant when intuition is the principal means of ecstatic
perception. Some have argued that beyond the intuitive state there is a fourth
condition in which the holistic perception exceeds mental and emotional
limitations and understanding.
The ecstatic experience of the shaman goes
beyond a feeling or perception of the sacred, the demonic or of natural
spirits. It involves the shaman directly and actively in transcendent
realities or lower realms of being. These experiences may occur in either the
dream state, the awakened state, or both. Dreams, and in particular, lucid
dreams, often play a significant role in the life of a shaman or shamanic
TRANCE STATES (or whatever title you want to give it)
The following edited extracts from a paper wrtten
by Joseph Bearwalker Wilson in 1978 describe some theory of the trance state
as it applies to shamanism. ©1978, 1995 by Joseph Bearwalker
Reprinted by permission of the author
In order to journey to the other dimensions of existence a shaman induces
an altered state of consciousness in himself similar to a state of
self-hypnosis. While in this shamanic trance he is in complete control; able
to take his consciousness and subtle bodies into nonphysical reality where he
visits the heavens and hells of existence, communicates with and controls
spirits, gains information, retrieves souls, and makes subtle changes in
reality which may affect the physical world.
A classical, and fairly accurate descriptive
definition of hypnosis is "a condition or state of selective
hypersuggestibility brought about in an individual through the use of certain
specific psychological or physical manipulations of the individual." The key
words here are "selective hypersuggestibility." A hypnotherapist uses that
selective hypersuggestibility in order to help bring about desired changes in
an individual. On the other hand a person practicing shamanic techniques uses
that state in order to fine tune his or her senses in order to see, feel,
hear, and smell more vividly while traveling in the other worlds.
The lighter trance states feel like those
times when you are reading a book, or watching television or a movie, and are
so engrossed that you are not aware of your surroundings. The deeper trances
feel similar to how you feel when you are first waking up in the morning. You
are aware that you are awake, your imagery is vivid and dreamlike, and you
feel relaxed, calm, and good.
The ability to attain a and control a trance
is the result of cumulative conditioning and mental training.
A weight lifter trains himself by practicing
daily. He begins by lifting relatively light weights and progresses to heavier
and heavier ones. Eventually he is able to lift a 200 pound weight above his
head with relative ease. By working in this manner he has trained his muscles
to respond according to his will. After he has reached his goal he can
maintain the ability by practicing only two or three times per week. If he
stops practicing entirely his muscles will gradually loose their conditioning
and strength and, after a time, he will no longer be able to lift the weight.
By reestablishing a routine of practice he will bring his ability back to
where it was.
This same principle applies to the trance
state. You train your mind to respond in accordance with your will in order to
produce the ability to develop a deep trance. This is done by daily practice.
It may take some time and effort to establish that ability, but once you have
it you will be able to maintain it by practicing only once or twice per week.
If you stop practicing entirely your ability will gradually lessen. Like the
weight lifter you will need to begin a more regular practice in order to
reestablish your abilities.
When you go into any trance you gradually
progress from ordinary consciousness into deeper levels. It's convenient to
have a means of measuring the depth of your trance, so the paragraphs that
follow outline some of the symptoms found at various depths. For convenience
sake I've divided the depths of trance into four major sections, and, using
terms borrowed from the hypnotic sciences, called them the Hypnodial, Light,
Medium, and Deep trance states.
In the Hypnodial Trance you progress from
ordinary consciousness through the following steps: feeling physically
relaxed, drowsy, your mind becomes relaxed and you may feel apathetic or
indifferent, your arms and legs start to feel heavy, you may have a tendency
to stare blankly, and have a disinclination to move your limbs. As you border
this and the Light Trance your breathing becomes slower and deeper, and your
pulse rate slows.
In the Light Trance you progress to a
reluctance to move, speak, think or act. You may experience some involuntary
twitching of your mouth or jaw, and sometimes of the eyes. You will feel a
heaviness throughout your entire body and a partial feeling of detachment. You
may also experience visual illusions. As you border this and the Medium Trance
you recognize that you are in a trance, but may find that feeling hard to
In the Medium Trance you definitely recognize
that you are in a trance and may experience partial amnesia unless you
consciously choose not to. By giving yourself the proper suggestions you can
make any part of your body insensitive to pain, and can experience the
illusions of touching, tasting, and smelling. You will be more sensitive to
variations in atmospheric pressure and temperature changes. As you border this
and the Deep Trance you may experience complete catalepsy of your limbs or
body. In other words, if your limbs or body positions are changed you will
leave them in the new position until they are changed again.
In the Deep Trance you can have the ability
to open your eyes without affecting the trance. You will also have the ability
to control such body functions as heart beat, blood pressure, digestion, and
body temperature. You can make your body and limbs completely rigid. You will
be able to recall lost memories and experience age regression. Here you can
vividly experience the sensation of lightness, floating, or flying. You can
also experience both positive and negative visual and auditory hallucinations
both while in the trance, and, if given the proper suggestions, after
awakening from the trance state. (A positive hallucination is when you are
told that you see something that is not there, and you see it. A negative
hallucination is when you are told that you do not see something that is
there, and you do not.) In this state you can also stimulate dreams and
visions, both during the trance state and (upon proper suggestion) later in
your natural sleep.
Each depth of trance has valuable uses. For
example, in the Light and Medium Trances you can learn to begin practical
shamanic journeying so that you can see, hear, touch and smell experiences in
the worlds which border ours. In those trance states these journeys will feel
similar to a fantasy or daydream and you may wonder if it is real, or just
your imagination. As you train yourself to deepen the trance the journeys
become more vivid, until, in the Deep Trance, they look and feel as though
they are taking place in physical reality.
Copyright (c) 1978, 1995 Joseph B. Wilson
Bearwalker Wilson (Bearwalker@aol.com)
Some have wondered if the experience of shamanic
ecstasy or flight makes a person a shaman. Generally speaking, most would say
no. A shaman is more than someone with an experience. First, he or she is a
trained initiate. Usually years of enculturalization and training under a
mentor precede becoming a functioning shaman. Second, a shaman is not just an
initiate who has received inner and outer training, but is a master of
shamanic journeying and techniques (shamanic ecstasy). This is not a casual
acquaintance with such abilities, there is some degree of mastery of them.
Finally, a shaman is a link or bridge between this world and the next. This is
a sacred trust and a service to the community. Sometimes a community that a
shaman serves in is rather small. In other instances it may be an entire
nation. A lot of that depends on social and cultural factors.
One becomes a shaman by one of three methods:
- Hereditary transmission;
- Spontaneous selection or "call" or "election"
- personal choice and quest. (This latter method is less
frequent and traditionally such a shaman is considered less powerful than
one selected by one of the two preceding methods.) The shaman is not
recognized as legitimate without having undergone two types of training:
- Ecstatic (dreams, trances, etc.)
- Traditional ("shamanic techniques, names and
functions of spirits, mythology and genealogy of the clan, secret
language, etc.) The two-fold course of instruction, given by the spirits
and the old master shamans is equivalent to an initiation." (Mircea
Eliade, The Encyclopedia of Religion, v. 13 , p. 202; Mcmillian, N.Y.,
1987.) It is also possible for the entire process to take place in the
dream state or in ecstatic experience.
Thus, there is more
to becoming a shaman than a single experience. It requires training,
perseverance and service.
A common experience of the call to shamanism is a psychic or
spiritual crisis, which often accompanies a physical or even a medical crisis,
and is cured by the shaman him or herself. This is a common occurrence for all
three types of shamanic candidates described above. The shaman is often marked
by eccentric behavior such as periods of melancholy, solitude, visions,
singing in his or her sleep, etc. The inability of the traditional remedies to
cure the condition of the shamanic candidate and the eventual self cure by the
new shaman is a significant episode in development of the shaman. The
underlying significant aspect of this experience, when it is present, is the
ability of the shaman to manage and resolve periods of distress.
No, not at all. The presence of shamanism
in a nation or a community does not mean that shamanism is central to the
spiritual or religious life of the community or region. Shamanism often exists
alongside and even in cooperation with the religious or healing practices of
ecstatic technique of shamanism does not involve itself in the broad range of
ecstasy reported in the history of religion. It is specifically focused on the
transpersonal movement of the consciousness of the shaman into higher or lower
realms of consciousness and existence. Another aspect of shamanism is that
compared to other spiritual traditions, it is a path that the individual walks
alone. While much of the focus of shamanic studies has been on the shamanic
complexes of north and central Asia, shamanism is a universal phenomenon, not
confined to any particular region or culture.
Shaman comes from the language of the
Tungus of North-Central Asia. It came into use in English via Russian.
In contemporary, historical or traditional
shamanic practice the shaman may at times fill the role of priest, magician,
metaphysician or healer. Personal experience is the prime determinant of the
status of a shaman. Knowledge of other realms of being and consciousness and
the cosmology of those regions is the basis of the shamanic perspective and
power. With this knowledge, the shaman is able to serve as a bridge between
the mundane and the higher and lower states The shaman lives at the edge of
reality as most people would recognize it and most commonly at the edge of
society itself. Few indeed have the stamina to adventure into these realms and
endure the outer hardships and personal crises that have been reported by or
observed of many shamans.
This FAQ was originally written to support a new Usenet
The purpose of this newsgroup is to provide a forum for discussion and
exchange of ideas, views and information about historic, traditional, tribal
and contemporary shamanism. This FAQ is intended to provide a useful general
overview of what "shamanism" actually means and what it is in practice. In
doing so, it has focused on shamanic ecstasy as being at the heart of shamanic
experience and practice. Many other aspects of shamanic experience are
encountered in the journey toward that center. Likewise, much is also
experienced in the journey out from that core experience.
denoted by * are currently in print.)
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99 E7 B6585 1979
- 15-13480: Czaplicka, Marie Antoinette, d. 1921. Aboriginal Siberia, a
study in social anthropology, Oxford, Clarendon press, 1914. xiv p., 1 l.,
374,  p. 16 pl., 2 fold. maps. 24 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: GN635.S5 C8
- Dioszegi, Vilmos. Popular beliefs and folklore tradition in Siberia.
Edited by V. Dioszegi. English translation rev. by Stephen P. Dunn..
Bloomington, Indiana University, c1968. (Series title: Uralic and Altaic
series ; v. 57). LC CALL NUMBER: GR345 .D513
- 79-300802: Dioszegi and M. Hoppal., editors. Shamanism in Siberia.
Budapest: Akademiai Kiado, 1978. 531 p. : ill. ; 25 cm. LC CALL NUMBER:
- 70-398375: Dioszegi, Vilmos. Tracing Shamans in Siberia. The story of an
ethnographical research expedition. [Oosterhout] Anthropological
Publications  328 p., 24 p. of photos. 20 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: BL2370
- *. 83-47834: Grim, John. The shaman: patterns of Siberian and Ojibway
healing / Norman : University of Oklahoma Press, c1983. :xiv, 258 p. ill.;
22 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: BL2370.S5 G75 1983
- 70-864890: Hatto, A. T. (Arthur Thomas) Shamanism and epic poetry in
Northern Asia, London, University of London (School of Oriental and African
Studies), 1970. , 19 p. 25 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: BL2370.S5 H37
- 86-161648: Saami pre-Christian religion : studies on the oldest traces
of religion among the Saamis / Stockholm : Universitet Stockholms :
[Distributed by] Almqvist & Wiksell International, c1985. 212 p. : ill.,
maps ; 24 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: BL980.L3 S22 1985
- *. 93-215323: Hoppal, M. & Pentikainen, J., eds. Northern religions
and shamanism; Budapest : Akademiai Kiado ; Helsinki : Finnish Literature
Society, 1992. xv, 214 p. : ill.; 24 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: BL685 .N678 1992
- 85-672605: Hoppal, Mihaly, editor. Shamanism in Eurasia. Gottingen:
Edition Herodot,. c1984. 2 v. (xxi, 475 p.): ill. ; 24 cm. LC CALL NUMBER:
BL2370.S5 S487 1984
- *. 95-9141: Leonard, Linda Schierse. Creation's heartbeat: following the
reindeer spirit. New York: Bantam Books, 1995. p. cm.
- 88-46031: Pentikainen, Juha. Kalevala mythology. Bloomington: Indiana
University Press, c1989. xix, 265 p.: ill.; 25 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: PH326
- 79-322371: Siikala, Anna-Leena. The rite technique of the Siberian
shaman. Helsinki: Suomalainen tiedeakatemia: Akateeminen kitjakauppa
[jakaja], 1978. 385 p.; 24 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: GR1 .F55 no. 220
- *. 92-169420: Symposium on the Saami Shaman Drum (1988: Turku, Finland)
The Saami Shaman Drum: based on papers read at the Symposium on the Saami
Shaman Drum held at Abo, Finland, on the 19th-20th of August 1988. Abo,
Finland : Donner Institute for Research in Religious and Cultural History;
Stockholm, Sweden : Distributed by Almqvist & Wiksell International,
1991. 182 p.: ill.; 25 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: DL42.L36 S96 1988
(Note: There are also a number of other materials
available on contemporary and traditional celtic practices by John and
Caitlin Mathews and R. J. Stewart)
- *. 92-53909: Cowan, Thomas Dale. Fire in the head: shamanism and the
Celtic spirit - 1st ed. [San Francisco]: HarperSanFrancisco,; c1993. 222 p.
LC CALL NUMBER: BL900 .C69 1993
- 88-132275: Naddair, Kaledon. Keltic folk & faerie tales: their
hidden meaning explored. London : Century, c1987. 269 p.: ill.;
LC CALL NUMBER: MLCM 91-03322 (G)
- *. 94-33811: Matthews, Caitlin, 1952- Encyclopedia of Celtic wisdom :
the Celtic shaman's sourcebook; Shaftsbury, Dorset ; Rockport, Mass.:
Element, 1994. p. cm.
LC CALL NUMBER: BL900 .M466 1994
- *. 94-22046: Matthews, John, 1948- The Celtic shaman's pack: exploring
the inner worlds; Shaftesbury, Dorset ; Rockport, Mass.: Element, 1994. p.
- *. 91-46470: Stewart, R. J., 1949- Earth light : the ancient path to
transformation: rediscovering the wisdom of Celtic and faery lore. Rockport,
MA : Element, 1992. p. cm.
- *. 92-32310: Stewart, R. J., 1949- Power within the land: the roots of
Celtic and underworld traditions, awakening the sleepers, and regenerating
the earth. Shaftesbury, Dorset ; Rockport, MA: Element, 1992. xxiii, 163 p.
: ill.; 23 cm.
LC CALL NUMBER: BF1552 .S75 1992
The following is a list of some materials available on
contemproary nontraditional shamanism. (Please note that the following books
may also contain useful information about tradtiional or historical aspects
- *. 84-20748: Achterberg, Jeanne. Imagery in healing : shamanism and
modern medicine / 1st ed. Boston : New Science Library, Shambhala ; New
York: Distributed in the U.S. by Random House, 1985. viii, 253 p.: ill.; 23
cm. LC CALL NUMBER: R726.5 .A24 1985
- *. 91-55334: Arrien, Angeles 1940- The four-fold way : walking the paths
of the warrior, teacher, healer, and visionary.1st ed. [San Francisco] :
HarperSanFrancisco, c1993. xviii, 203 p. : ill. ; 24 cm. LC CALL NUMBER:
BF1611 .A76 1993
- *. 94-35159: Cruden, Loren, The spirit of place: a workbook for sacred
alignment. Rochester, Vt.: Destiny Books, c1995. p. cm.
- *. 87-32233: Doore, Gary, compiled & edited by. Shaman's path:
healing, personal growth & empowerment. 1st ed. Boston: Shambhala:
Distributed in the U.S.A. by Random House, 1988. xii, 236 p. ; 23 cm. LC
CALL NUMBER: BL2370.S5 S525 1988
- 81-15771: Drury, Nevill, 1947- The shaman and the magician: journeys
between the worlds. London ; Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1982. xii,
129 p.: ill.; 22 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: BL2370.S5 D783 1982
- *. 95-18506: Espinoza, Luis. Chamalu: the shamanic way of the heart.
Rochester, Vt.: Destiny Books, 1995. p. cm.
- *. 89-46444: Harner, Michael J. The way of the shaman; 10th anniversary
ed., 1st Harper & Row pbk. ed., San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1990.
xxiv, 171 p. : ill. ; 25 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: RZ401 .H187 1990
- *. 94-144219: Hughes-Calero, Heather. Circle of power / Sedona, Ariz. :
Higher Consciousness Books, 1993 137 p. : ill. ; 24 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: MLCM
- *. 91-73187: Hughes-Calero, Heather. The flight of Winged Wolf: 1st ed.
Carmel, Calif. : Higher Consciousness Books, 1991. 159 p.: ill.; 23 cm. LC
CALL NUMBER: BF1999 .H379 1991
- *. Hughes-Calero, Heather. The Shamanic Journey of Living as Soul. 1st
ed.; Carmel, Calif.: Higher Consciousness Books,1994. 144 p.: ill.; 23 cm.
- *. 89-82151: Hughes-Calero, Heather. Woman between the wind. 1st ed.
Carmel, Calif.: Higher Consciousness Books,1990. 156 p.: ill. ; 23 cm. LC
CALL NUMBER: MLCM 92/13881 (P)
- *. 90-56447: Ingerman, Sandra. Soul retrieval: mending the fragmented
self.1st ed. San Francisco, Calif.: HarperSanFrancisco, c1991. xii, 221 p. :
ill. ; 23 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: BL65.M4 I45 1991
- *. 93-4429: Ingerman, Sandra. Welcome home : following your soul's
journey home. 1st ed. [San Francisco, Calif.]: HarperSanFrancisco,. c1993,
187 p. : ill. ; 24 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: BL65.M4 I453 1993
- 86-28856: Jamal, Michele. Shape shifters : shaman women in contemporary
society / New York : Arkana, 1987. xx, 204 p. : ports. ; 20 cm. LC CALL
NUMBER: BL458 .J36 1987
- *. 93-48357: Keeney, Bradford P. Shaking out the spirits : a
psychotherapist's entry into the healing mysteries of global shamanism.
Barrytown, N.Y. : Station Hill Press, c1994. vi, 179 p.: ill. ; 23 cm. LC
CALL NUMBER: BF1611 .K33 1994
- *. 90-39839: King, Serge. Urban shaman. New York: Simon & Schuster,
c1990. 256 p.; 22 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: BL2370.S5 K58 1990
- *. Larsen, Stephen. The Shaman's Doorway: Opening Imagination to Power
& Myth.. Barrytown, N.Y.: Station Hill Press, 1988. xii, 258 p.: ill. ;
24 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: BL304 .L37 1988
- *. McKenna, Terence. The
Archaic Revival: Speculations on Psychedelic Mushrooms, the Amazon, Virtual
Reality, UFOs, Evolution, Shamanism, the Rebirth of the Goddess, and the End
of History. San Francisco: Harper, 1991. 267 p. ISBN 0-06-250613-7
- *. 92-195879: Meadows, Kenneth. Earth medicine: a shamanic way to self
discovery. Shaftesbury, Dorset ; Rockport, Mass.: Element, 1991. xi, 333 p.
: ill. ; 24 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: BF1622.U6 M43 1989
- *. 92-194584: Meadows, Kenneth. The medicine way: a shamanic path to
self mastery. Shaftesbury, Dorset ; Rockport, Mass.: Element,1991. xx, 228
p. : ill. ; 24 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: BF1622.U6 M44 1991
- *. 91-37142: Meadows, Kenneth. Shamanic experience : a practical guide
to contemporary shamanism. Shaftesbury, Dorset; Rockport, Mass. : Element,
1991. 196 p.: ill. ; 24 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: BF1611 .M42 1991
- *. 92-56408: Mindell, Arnold. The shaman's body : a new shamanism for
transforming health, relationships, and community. 1st HarperCollins pbk.
ed. [San Francisco, CA]: HarperSanFrancisco, 1993. xvi, 236 p.; 21 cm. LC
CALL NUMBER: BF1611. M56 1993
- *. 95-12177: Natale, Frank. Trance dance: the dance of life. Rockport,
Mass.: Element, 1995. p. cm.
- *. 91-58922: Noble, Vicki. Uncoiling the snake: ancient patterns in
contemporary women's lives: a snake power reader. 1st ed. San Francisco,
Calif.: HarperSanFrancisco, c1993. xv, 189 p.: ill.; 24 cm. LC CALL NUMBER:
BF1611 .N63 1993
- *. 89-45959: Noble, Vicki. Shakti woman: feeling our fire, healing our
world: the new female shamanism. 1st ed. San Francisco, Calif.
HarperSanFrancisco, c1991. x, 255 p.: ill.; 25 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: BL625.7
- *. 91-42561: Roth, Gabrielle. Maps to ecstasy: teachings of an urban
shaman. San Rafael, Calif.: New World Library, 1989, 1992. p. cm. LC CALL
NUMBER: BL2370.S5 R67 1992
- *. 90-29017: Scott, Gini Graham. Shamanism & personal mastery: using
symbols, rituals, and talismans to activate the powers within you.1st ed.
New York : Paragon House, 1991. xiii, 284 p. ; 23 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: BF1611
- *. Tucker, Michael. Dreaming with open eyes: The shamanic spirit in
twentieth century art and culture. San Francisco: Aquarius/
HarperSanFrancisco, 1992. xxiii, 432 p., ill., 25 cm. LC CALL NumBER:
BL2370.S5 T83 1992
- *. 94-30646: Warter, Carlos. Recovery of the sacred : lessons in soul
awareness; Deerfield Beach, Fla.: Health Communications, Inc., c1994. p. cm.
- *. 90-55404: Whitaker, Kay Cordell. The reluctant shaman : a woman's
first encounters with the unseen spirits of the earth. 1st ed. [San
Francisco, Calif.]: HarperSanFrancisco, c1991. viii, 296 p. ; 22 cm. LC CALL
NUMBER: BL73.W45 A3 1991
- Hultkrantz, Ake. The North American Indian Orpheus tradition; a
contribution to comparative religion. Stockholm, 1957. 339 p. 25 cm. Series:
Ethnographical Museum of Sweden, Stockholm. Monograph series, publication
no. 2. LC CALL NUMBER 98.R3 H82
- 92-18476. Hultkrantz, Ake. Shamanic healing and ritual drama: health and
medicine in native North American religious traditions. New York: Crossroad,
1992. LC CALL NUMBER: E98.R3 H825 1992
- Johnson, Ronald. The art of the shaman. Iowa City, Iowa : University of
Iowa Museum of Art' 1973. 32 p.: ill. 26 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: E78 N78 J636
- Park, Willard Zerbe. Shamanism in western North America; a study in
cultural relationships, by Willard Z. Park. Evanston and Chicago,
Northwestern University, 1938. viii, 166 p. 24 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: H31. N6
- Park, Willard P. (Willard Zerbe) Shamanism in western North America; a
study in cultural relationships, by Willard Z. Park. New York, Cooper Square
Publishers, 1975. viii, 166 p. 24 cm. Reprint of the 1938 ed. published by
Northwestern University, Evanston. viii, 166 p. 24 cm. LC CALL NUMBER:
E98.R3 P23 1975
- The Shaman from Elko : papers in honor of Joseph L. Henderson on his
seventy-fifth birthday / [editorial committee, Gareth Hill, chairman ... et
al.]. San Francisco : C. G. Jung Institute of San Francisco, c1978. 272 p.;
23 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: RC509 .S53
- 91-42609: Portals of power: Shamanism in South America. Eedited by E.
Jean Matteson Langdon and Gerhard Baer. 1st ed. Albuquerque: University of
New Mexico Press, c1992. x, 350 p.: ill., map ; 24 cm. LC CALL NUMBER:
F2230.1.R3 P65 1992
- 81-103991: Spirits, shamans, and stars: perspectives from South America.
Editors: David L. Browman, Ronald A. Schwarz. The Hague; New York: Mouton,
c1979. vii, 276 p.: ill.; 24 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: F2230.1.M4 S68
- *. 87-10643: Wilbert, Johannes. Tobacco and shamanism in South America.
New Haven: Yale University Press, 1987. xix, 294 p.: ill.; 25 cm. Series
title: Psychoactive plants of the world. LC CALL NUMBER: F2230.1.T63 W55
- 89-20493: Witchcraft and sorcery of the American native peoples. Edited
by Deward E. Walker, Jr.; preface by David Carrasco. Moscow, Idaho:
University of Idaho wress, c1989. xi, 346 p.: ill., maps; 26 cm. LC CALL
NUMBER: E59.R38 W58 1989
- *. 87-10643: Wilbert, Johannes. Tobacco and shamanism in South America.
New Haven: Yale University Press, c1987. xix, 294 p.: ill. ; 25 cm. LC CALL
NUMBER: F2230.1.T63 W55 1987
- 89-205906: Culture, experience, and pluralism : essays on African ideas
of illness and healing. Uppsala : Academiae Upsaliensis; Stockholm, Sweden:
Distributed by Almqvist & Wiksell International, 1989. 308 p.: ill.; 24
cm. LC CALL NUMBER: GN645 .C85 1989
- The rest added by dimitri
- Healing Wisdom of Africa : Finding Life Purpose Through Nature, Ritual,
and Community by S Malidome, Malidoma Patrice Some, L. M. Some Paperback 1
edition (October 1999) J P Tarcher; ISBN: 087477991X
- Culture, Experience and Pluralism : Essays on African Ideas of Illness
and Healing (Uppsala Studies in Cultural Anthropology No. 13) by A.
Jacobson-Widding (Editor) Paperback (October 1989) Coronet Books; ISBN:
- Experiencing Ritual : A New Interpretation of African Healing (Series in
Contemporary Ethnography) by Edith Turner, Singleton Kahona, William
Blodgett Paperback - 239 pages (April 1992) University of Pennsylvania
Press; ISBN: 0812213661 ; Dimensions (in inches): 0.66 x 9.06 x 6.07
- African Spirits Speak: A White Woman's Journey into the Healing
Tradition of the Sangoma by Nicky Arden Paperback - 272 pages (March 1,
1999) Inner Traditions Intl Ltd; ISBN: 0892817526 ; Dimensions (in inches):
0.79 x 9.00 x 6.03
- Sangoma : My Odyssey into the Spirit World of Africa by James Hall ASIN:
- 55-28909: [Ch'u, Yuan] ca. 343-ca. 277 B.C. The nine songs; a study of
shamanism in ancient China London, G. Allen and Unwin  64 p. 23 cm. LC
CALL NUMBER: BL1825 .C45 1955
- 86-183798: Covell, Alan Carter. Folk art and magic: Shamanism in Korea.
Seoul, Korea: Hollym Corp., c1986. 216 p.: ill (some col.); 25 cm. LC CALL
NUMBER: BL2236.S5 C68 1986
- 83-81487: Covell, Alan Carter. Ecstasy : Shamanism in Korea Elizabeth,
N.J.: Hollym International, 1983. 107 p.: ill. (some col.); 26 cm. LC CALL
NUMBER: BL2370.S5 C68 1983
- 78-27500: Harvey, Youngsook Kim. Six Korean women: the socialization of
shamans. St. Paul: West Pub. Co., c1979. xi, 326 p.,  leaves of plates :
ill.; 25 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: BL2370.S5 H36
- 87-37256 Heinze, Ruth-Inge. Trance and healing in Southeast Asia today.
Bangkok, Thailand: White Lotus Co.; Berkeley [Calif.]: Independent Scholars
of Asia, 1988. ix, 406 p.: col. ill.; 22 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: BL2370.S5 H42
- 84-244601: Korean folklore. U.S. ed. Seoul, Korea: Si-sa- yong-o-sa
Publishers; Arch Cape, Or., U.S.A.: Pace International Research, c1983.
viii, 312 p.: ill.; 23 cm.
- *7. 94-2375: Lee, Jae Hoon. The exploration of the inner wounds--Han.
Atlanta, Ga.: Scholars Press, c1994. ix, 188 p.; 23 cm. LC CALL NUMBER:
BF575.H26 L44 1994
- 82-133339: Lee, Jung Young. Korean shamanistic rituals. The Hague; New
York: Mouton, c1981. xvi, 249 p.: ill.; 24 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: BL2236.S5 L43
- 87-71271: Shamanism: the spirit world of Korea / Berkeley, Calif.: Asian
Humanities Press, 1988. 190 p.; 23 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: BL2236.S5 S48 1988
- *10. 94-23024: Maskarinec, Gregory Gabriel. The rulings of the night: an
ethnography of Nepalese shaman oral texts. Madison, Wis. : University of
Wisconsin Press, c1995. p. cm.
- *12. 92-23545: Desjarlais, Robert R. Body and emotion : the aesthetics
of illness and healing in the Nepal Himalayas. Philadelphia: University of
Pennsylvania Press, c1992. xii, 300 p.: ill., map; 24 cm. LC CALL NUMBER:
BL2033.5.S52 D45 1992
- 88-40440: Mumford, Stan. Himalayan dialogue : Tibetan lamas and Gurung
shamans in Nepal / Madison, Wis.: University of Wisconsin Press, c1989. xii,
286 p.: ill.; 24 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: BL2034.3.G93 M85 1989
- 81-52908: Peters, Larry. Ecstasy and healing in Nepal : an
ethnopsychiatric study of Tamang shamanism. Malibu, Calif.: Undena
Publications, 1981. 179 p. : ill. ; 23 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: DS493.9.T35 P47
- 15. 76-902895: Spirit possession in the Nepal Himalayas. New Delhi:
Vikas Pub. House, c1976. xxviii, 401 p. : ill., map ; 25 cm. LC CALL NUMBER:
- *16. 90-42659: Walraven, Boudewijn. Songs of the shaman: the ritual
chants of the Korean mudang. London ; New York : Kegan Paul International,
1994. x, 307 p. ; 25 cm. LC CALL NUMBER: BL2236.S5 W35 1994
- McKenna, Terence and
Dennis. The Invisible Landscape: Mind, Hallucinogens and the I Ching.
Seabury Press, 1975; New York: HarperCollins, 1993. 229 p. ISBN
- McKenna, Terence. Food of the Gods: The Search for the Original Tree of
Knowledge: A Radical History of Plants, Drugs, and Human Evolution. New
York: Bantam, 1992. 313 p. ISBN 0-553-371130-4
- McKenna, Terence. True Hallucinations: Being an Account of the Author's
Extraordinary Adventures in the Devil's Paradise. New York: HarperCollins,
1993. 237 p. ISBN 0-60-250545-9
- 92-50768: Plotkin, Mark J. Tales of a shaman's apprentice: an
ethnobotanist searches for new medicines in the Amazon rain forest. New
York: Viking, 1993. x, 318 p.,  p. of plates : ill.; 24 cm. LC CALL
NUMBER: F2230.1.B7 P56 1993
Dean Edwards - email@example.com